Urban Planning Course (URPL-GP)

URPL-GP 1603  Urban Planning Methods and Practice  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
The course will introduce students to the planning process by reviewing commonly used planning practices and tools. As an intermediate level course, broad overviews of each topic will be provided. The intention is to expose students to the many considerations that go into planning, while introducing them to skills that can be incorporated into their “planner toolkit” which can be further expanded upon through future coursework and work experience. Students will be expected to apply skills and concepts learned in class to a simulated planning project based on a real site in New York City. By the end of the course, students should be able to 1) identify and scope planning problems and issues; 2) determine the information required to address the issues; 3) collect, analyze, and synthesize planning information; and 4) concisely and effectively communicate findings and recommendations. Beyond the “toolkit,” students will be encouraged to identify and establish their own set of values and visions that underlie their work as planners. Through lectures, lab sections, and group project work, students will be expected to think critically about the tools being used by planners today – how are these tools useful (or not) to the planning process? Are these tools still relevant? What is missing from the planning process, as it currently exists? What can you, as future planners, do to improve the planning process?
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 1605  Land Use Law: The Planning Perspective  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
This course is designed to give you a better understanding of the legal and administrative framework used to regulate land use at various levels of government, and the relationship of the planner to the law. We will cover basic legal procedures as well as statutory and regulatory materials relating to zoning, urban renewal and eminent domain, regulatory takings, inclusionary housing, historic preservation, and environmental law. Politics, economics and social norms play a critical role in the use and development of land, often adapting or even flouting the “law on the books.” Although principally concerned with the official legal rules governing of land uses, this course also will examine the interplay of formal and informal controls in shaping land use patterns.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 1620  Data Analysis, Mapping, and Storytelling  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
This course will train students to obtain, clean, manipulate, analyze, map, and visualize spatial and non-spatial data to support their work throughout their urban planning careers. The course emphasizes the critical role of design and communication in effective data storytelling. Students will practice the open-source tools R and QGIS in depth. The course will help students build a strong foundation in working with data that will allow them to learn and master additional programs, languages, and tools toward future goals. This course may require a significant amount of time outside of class periods to work on assignments and the final project, depending on the student’s technical skill level. A personal laptop is required.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2415  Public Policy and Planning in New York  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
There is no profession more noble than public service, and no arena more exciting than New York. Our objective is to gain insight into how our city and state governments make decisions, informed by a foundational and wide-ranging understanding of the forces at work and issues that face policymakers today. I am teaching this class because of my longstanding—and ever-expanding—interest in the practice of public policy and a deeply held belief that the effectiveness of our government depends on the quality of those who serve in it. In the first half of the semester, we will examine the structures of New York City and State government and the recent historical and political context in which they operate. This background will be used in the second half of the semester to explore a range of public policy debates in areas such as economic development, transportation and infrastructure, public education, public safety and housing and homelessness. Emphasis throughout will be placed on the practicalities of decision-making and the messy, politicized and conflict-rich environment in which public policy is hammered out. We will be joined by a number of guest speakers from the worlds of journalism, government, business and advocacy.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2452  Public-Private Partnerships, Public Spaces, Politics & the Press  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
This course examines the special mix of tools, tactics, theories and trends that shape and transform cities. It will be grounded in case studies that look at both successful and unsuccessful urban revitalization strategies in places ranging from Times Square (in different decades) to the Bronx River to Singapore to Atlantic City. Seasoned guest speakers, who in the past have included “Broken Windows” author George Kelling, the Director of the Brownsville Partnership, a NYPost columnist, the Director of a Public Art initiative, a former Atlantic City public official, and the former Director of the Port Authority, will discuss their different perspectives and tactics for changing urban areas. Readings will include contemporary media coverage side by side with case studies and more theoretical selections from leading thinkers like Jacobs, Garvin and Glaeser. Throughout the course there will be a special focus on the varied nature and role of public-private partnerships in harnessing the power of the non-profit, private and governmental sectors, especially in transforming public spaces. Students will examine the different perspectives and strengths of each sector, and the special skills needed to make such partnerships powerful tools for change. The central role of public space transformation and placemaking in shaping perceptions and empowering communities will be looked at in depth. Explicit theories and implicit assumptions about the economic life of cities will be illuminated through the numerous real-world examples, some of which will involve the instructor’s hands-on experience with urban park revitalization, the growing international BID movement, and the transformation of Times Square. Through specific examples we will examine how ideas about urban economic development shift across time and place, even as certain deeper truths remain constant. While reviewing the standard tools in the economic development toolbox, we will also look at relevant ideas and practices in corporate branding and competitive strategy, managing public space, nurturing creative industries, and reforming governmental practices and regulations. Short assignments will require students to prepare succinct written or oral analyses of particular case studies. A final paper or presentation will require students to analyze or put forth an urban revitalization strategy for a particular place and discuss the criteria for determining the success of that strategy. Across all classes, assignments and case studies, we will repeatedly ask: What are the things that make cities thrive and grow, and how does one nurture those things? We will answer that in part by keeping our eyes on the fundamental economic forces that drive cities and their land values. But we will also focus in every class and case study on the less quantifiable but no less important political and press skills needed to form partnerships, shape outcomes, and transform cities.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2470  Transportation Policymaking  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
This course will provide an understanding of core legal concepts and selected legal issues in advancing urban transportation and infrastructure projects. Reviewing cutting edge projects in NYC and in other cities, the course will seek to give students a better understanding of legal liability risks and litigation vulnerabilities attendant to innovative projects. While primarily focused on NYC, the course will also look at global and national trends and associated legal issues.The course is designed to help planners, engineers and lawyers learn how they can work together as a team to get to a legal contextual “yes” on their projects.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2608  Urban Economics  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered Spring  
The field of urban economics addresses a wide variety of questions and topics. At the most general level, the field introduces space into economic models and studies the location of economic activity. Urban economics typically addresses four sets of questions, and this course is organized around these four areas. The first set of questions focuses on the development of urban areas. Why do cities exist and why do some grow more rapidly? How can local governments encourage such growth? The second set of questions addresses patterns of development within metropolitan areas. Why do certain parts of metropolitan areas grow more rapidly than others? How do firms and households decide where to locate within given metropolitan areas? What determines the price of land, and how do these prices vary across space? The third set of questions concerns the spatial dimensions of urban problems. In this class, we will focus on poverty, housing, and suburban sprawl. Finally, in the last part of the class, we will briefly study the spatial aspects of local government.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2618  Geographic Information Systems and Analysis  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
Understanding geographic relationships between people, land use, and resources is fundamental to planning. Urban planners routinely use spatial analysis to inform decision-making. This course will introduce students to Geographic Information Systems (GIS), a tool to analyze and visualize spatial data. The course will emphasize the core functions of GIS: map making, data management, and spatial analysis. Students will learn cartographic best practices, how to find and create spatial data, spatial analysis methodology, and how to approach problem solving from a geographic perspective. Throughout the course, students will build a portfolio of professional quality maps and data visualizations.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2620  Race, Ethnicity, Class, and Gender in American Cities  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
This course examines historic and contemporary patterns of racial and ethnic stratification often found at the center of disputes concerning urban development, the allocation of city resources and unequal distributions of power. Also embedded throughout the course are ongoing analyses of the ways in which structural inequalities often function in class and gender-specific ways. Using New York City as a laboratory, an interdisciplinary approach is implored - within and outside of the classroom - to make explicit the impacts of this complex legacy of racial formation on planning processes, decisions and outcomes for historically disenfranchised people and communities. The racialized experiences of select immigrant populations, which includes patterns of incorporation into American society as well as enduring transnational links to countries of origin, are also explored within this context.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2625  Environmental Infrastructure for Sustainable Cities  (3 Credits)  
Sustainability requires the efficient use of resources. The least carbon- and energy-intensive pattern of settlement today is in compact, walkable cities whose integrated networks of infrastructure that allows us to move, eat, drink, play, and survive extreme weather. As our population shifts to urban and coastal areas, we will need to build more infrastructure systems to accommodate growth and to increase sustainability. Yet we are building too little, too slow to maintain our existing infrastructure, let alone to facilitate next generation systems that will accelerate our society to a truly low-carbon future. Our transportation, water, parks, freight, solid waste, and energy infrastructure systems are crumbling, and new needs such as coastal flood mitigation and resiliency are not being met. With little political will for massive public works programs and current practices that are slow and costly, cities are starting to use innovative ways to deliver these critical assets, including design-build procurement, long-term concessions, private operation, maintenance and financing, and other forms of public-private partnerships. Cities and states are pooling resources to solve problems through infrastructure exchanges and accelerators. They are creatively re-imagining and reusing obsolete and neglected land and buildings, and are integrating services to create infrastructure that is multi-purpose, resilient, and sustainable.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2631  Transportation, Land Use and Urban Form  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
This is an introductory course in urban transportation planning. The course is divided into 3 parts. Part One is a foundational review of theories and research about the complex relationships among transportation, land use and urban form. Part Two examines certain key factors that today’s transportation planners deal with as transportation and land use interact in the context of planning and projects. Part Three involves a review of some of the most notable transportation and land use plans, projects and problems facing the New York City metropolitan region. The final class examines useful international trends and comparisons.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2639  Real Estate Finance  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered Fall  
The course introduces students to the basic tools of real estate analysis and finance. The development and redevelopment of urban real estate, especially housing, is examined from a public policy perspective. Students will learn the acquisition and development process and master the basics of project-level real estate economics. Emphasis is on the financial structure of real estate projects, including tax implications, and how a variety of public policies can influence private development activity.The course will provide substantial foundation and background for broader study in real estate finance. Through lectures, case studies, financial modeling, and presentations by practitioners, students will receive a practical understanding of housing policy, housing finance, affordable housing finance, and development fundamentals.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2641  Urban Transportation Planning  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
This course will offer an introduction to transportation planning, including both theoretical and practical approaches. This course will provide an understanding of the evolution and role of urban public transportation modes, systems and services. Additional topics will be introduced, depending upon speaker availability. Subjects in general will include characteristics of different modes (rail, bus, air), scheduling, budgeting, Federal grants, modeling, route design considerations, transit oriented development, public involvement, and project development. While primarily focused upon transportation issues in North America, international transit systems will be used as comparative study cases.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2645  Planning for Emergencies and Disasters  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
The consequences of disastrous events are escalating globally in terms of lives lost, injuries, adverse social conditions, economic costs, and environmental destruction. Furthermore, the rapidity of action required when an emergency arises poses unique challenges to traditional planning and the provision of public services. This course introduces students to the discipline of emergency management, particularly regarding natural hazards, in order to better understand urban planning and management approaches necessary in preparing for, responding to, recovering from and mitigating future disaster impacts. The course also investigates root causes of who and what is at risk, along with political economic considerations that induce disasters.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2652  Urban Infrastructure Project Planning  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered Fall  
This course is about the basic knowledge and skills required for the appraisal (‘ex-ante’ evaluation) of public and private investments in infrastructure and economic development projects. The focus is on public sector investments identified through local/municipal development planning processes, including water supply and sewerage, urban transport, solid waste management and local economic development projects. While offered as part of the Wagner’s Master of Urban Planning (MUP) International Planning Specialization and aligned with current practices of International Financial Institutions and Aid Agencies, the course is intended for policy analysts, urban planners, and engineers working in both developed and developing countries, as most of its technical content is relevant to both contexts. By taking this course, students should be able to: * Appreciate the public sector investment programming and capital budgeting process. * Recognize the dual purpose of appraisal (as aid to decision making and design improvement) and become familiar with the techniques of Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA) and Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) * Become familiar with the finance and welfare economics concepts underpinning the Cost-Benefit Analysis of private and public-sector investment projects. * Assess the financial feasibility and bankability of projects and identify, quantify, and value the economic, social, and environmental externalities associated with them. * Practice the integrated (technical, financial, institutional, economic, social, and environmental) appraisal of an investment project of moderate scale and complexity and carry out a relevant risk analysis The course combines lectures and computer lab sessions for financial modelling of projects (in Excel) and the application of industry-standard software for probabilistic risk analysis (Oracle’s Crystal Ball).
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2660  History and Theory of Planning  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
This course examines key ideas in the history and theory of planning. We start with some challenges of 21st-century urbanism to activate our conversations about the history and theory of planning. Does the historical and theoretical apparatus of planning equip us to deal with 21st-century urban formations and problems? Are the forms of contemporary urbanism categorically different from those of the past? Are the techniques and methods of planning bound to the American context, or are they also suitable for other social and political contexts? The syllabus is organized in part as a great books course. We will read a series of classic books in the history and theory of planning by major thinkers whose ideas have had a significant impact on urban form, theory, and planning. They include: Daniel Burnham on the metropolitan idea; Le Corbusier on the modernist city; Jane Jacobs on pedestrian-centered urbanism; and Ian McHarg on environmental planning, among others. Another set of readings and class sessions will focus on the techniques of planning on which planners have grounded their claims of professional expertise. Our goal is to understand the history, use and abuse of the planner’s toolkit. Our topics include: data surveys and the framing of planning as a social science; advocacy planning; building codes; and zoning.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2665  Decentralized Development Planning and Policy Reform in Developing Countries  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered Spring  
The last three decades have witnessed a global proliferation of public sector restructuring, decentralization, and democratization in developing countries. Traditional development planning has adapted (unevenly) to these trends as they have unfolded. This course presents an overview of the evolution of the theory and practice of planning in developing countries with a particular focus on subnational governments. A central theme is that there are certain universal norms and processes in development planning, but the structure and performance of a planning system depend heavily on the economic, political, institutional and cultural context of a particular country. The course outlines and assesses planning models and systems, reviews approaches used by developing countries and international development agencies to support decentralization and local planning, and introduces a range of practices and tools used by local planners in developing countries. The overall focus is on how local planning systems, techniques and processes can be strategically designed and implemented to work effectively in different contexts. Detailed case studies and exercises based on them are an integral part of the course.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2666  Water Sourcing and Climate Change  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
In the coming decades, water will be the central issue in global economic development and health. With one in six people around the world currently lacking access to safe drinking water (1.2 billion people), and more than two out of six lacking adequate sanitation (2.6 billion people), water is already a critical factor affecting the social and economic well being of a sizable proportion of the world’s population. However, with the world’s population projected to double over the next fifty years, and with rapidly dwindling water supplies becoming both more scarce and more volatile as a result of global warming, we are likely to face a water crisis so severe it will reshape everything from our governance structures to our modes of economic and agricultural production to our patterns of social interaction. Water will be the axis around which all public policy revolves. In light of the centrality of water as a current and future public policy issue, this course explores innovative and sustainable solutions for water harvesting and distribution to address the challenges presented by anthropogenic climate change. The field of water harvesting and delivery has generally considered water supplies to be fairly stable, available to be sourced in the same places. As a result, water infrastructure management has traditionally been concerned with efficient methods of water sourcing, delivery, and purification, and with effective methods of cost-recovery for those services. In this course, we will step out of this conventional framework and look at water provision from a new vantage point: instead of taking water supplies as a constant, we will look at how water sources are changing as a function of global warming and increased population pressures, and then will ask what implications these shifts are likely to have for water sourcing and water distribution.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2670  Land Use, Housing and Community Development in New York City Seminar  (3 Credits)  
This interdisciplinary seminar brings together law, urban planning and public policy students to analyze historic and current trends in affordable housing, community development, land use, and housing finance. We use New York City as a laboratory that is both unique from, and similar to, other American cities. The course focuses on housing/community development policy, real estate and mortgage financing, subsidies, community participation, environmental impact, and neighborhood change such as gentrification and displacement, with particular emphasis on how issues of race, poverty, and the economic climate affect federal, state, local and community responses. We will discuss the causes and consequences of government intervention in housing and neighborhoods, developing tools for students to determine the need for public intervention, the optimal design and financing of housing and community development programs, and how to evaluate success. The most important course responsibility is completion of a group project among two to four students with a mix of Law and Wagner students on each paper. Each student must contribute to the group to create a fully-integrated and collaborative final project. Students will work on a cutting-edge issue in New York City land use, housing or community development requiring research, interviews with key stakeholders and thoughtful policy and legal recommendations. The grade will be based upon class participation, a financial exercise, the group project paper and a group presentation. A field trip to local neighborhoods is planned. The course will be taught by Sarah Gerecke, former Deputy Assistant Secretary at the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, and Jerry Salama, a developer of affordable housing in Harlem and former Deputy Commissioner of the New York City Department of Housing Preservation and Development. This course requires an application. Registration directions can be found at the following link - http://wagner.nyu.edu/portal/students/academics/courses/highlights. The course is taught at the School of Law.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 2680  Topics in Urban Design  (3 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
This course, City Streets and Urban Landscapes, will immerse students in a study of established and emerging urban design priorities for city streets. Streets and sidewalks operate as the most public of our city’s public spaces, at once forming connective tissue between different locations while also creating borders and boundaries. Using New York City’s streets as a living laboratory, students will develop methods to evaluate the many different publics served by city streets with the goal of producing design proposals that promote livability, ecological resilience, and social justice. Streetscapes are among the most territorialized urban spaces, as multiple city and state agencies exercise jurisdiction over their design and approved uses. Still, within these regulatory frameworks, a high degree of design innovation has taken hold. Streets are dynamic networks that embed design as well as social, political, ecological and technological priorities. The archaeological record indicates that roads were originally developed to support wheeled surface transportation. Contemporary streets remain dedicated to transportation, to be sure, but the streetscape also engages most every other essential system that allows for dense, urban human habitation, including the provision of power, fresh water, waste water, trash collection, telecommunications, and emergency services. Streets also support the habitats of many non-human occupants such as plants and animals and a focus on ecological, climate-conscious design is an additional priority for this course. Extreme weather events highlight the streets’ role in stormwater management, further underscoring the urgency for redesigned streetscapes.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: Yes  
URPL-GP 4622  Wealth and Inequality  (1.5 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
Over the last few decades, disparities in income, wealth, and mobility have widened in the United States, but the U.S. fares worse in wealth inequality than income inequality. Wealth, in particular, is crucial to many functions across the life course and between generations, including but not limited to: spending on healthcare and education, acquiring and retaining investments for profit, weathering unexpected expenses or shocks, ascribing social status, and transferring assets to children and/or other family members. The single-family suburban home is the cornerstone of average household wealth and a symbol of the American Dream, but who has wealth in the U.S. is heavily impacted by historical and systematic inequality. This seminar brings a sociological and policy lens to the discourse on wealth inequality. The course begins with the following questions: What is wealth? What kind of assets make up one’s wealth? Why does wealth matter? We delve into the history and wealth trends in the United States before focusing on the intersection of the following themes and wealth: home ownership, migration, entrepreneurship, and banking.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 4632  Planning Healthy Neighborhoods  (1.5 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
This course introduces students in urban planning and related fields, to the ways in which urban planning and urban design can help to improve community health. Although urban planning and public health are closely related in their history and their objectives, these fields have been historically taught and practiced independently with limited interaction. The course focuses on neighborhood scale planning issues that impact health, including transportation, land use, urban design, community development, and crime prevention. This class will involve discussions, lectures, guest speakers, readings, and a research report.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 4635  Community Equity & Wealth Building  (1.5 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
This course introduces graduate students to the field of community wealth-building, neighborhood equity, and movements for community-led economic development. Students will examine ways that communities have organized against redlining, and for access to capital; methods for ensuring collaborative, inclusive economic development and a just transition from an extractive to a regenerative economy; and technical tools needed to advance cooperative economics and locally-controlled development. The course will provide students with a strong historical framework, as well as timely case studies showing how groups in low-income urban neighborhoods and communities of color are working to build a just economy. Guest speakers will share their experiences organizing for community control of land and social housing, community development financial institutions and public banking, worker-owned cooperatives, locally-controlled renewable energy, and more.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 4636  Housing Policy I  (1.5 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
This is the first course in a two-course sequence in housing policy, with an emphasis on major federal policies and the connection between housing, place and opportunity. This first course explores the historic, economic and social context of current housing policy and debates in the U.S., including how housing and community conditions and policies are intertwined. It provides an overview of housing policies, and how they play out on the ground. A key goal of the course is for students to develop knowledge of the field as well as insights for assessing the relative merits of various policies and interventions-what problem are we trying to solve? How might this approach address that problem, or not? What other related outcomes should we worry about? How have housing issues or challenges changed, and what might that mean for needed housing innovations? The role of race and space is considered throughout the course.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 4638  Housing Policy II  (1.5 Credits)  
Typically offered Fall  
This second course in the Housing and Community Development sequence expands upon the foundational understanding of housing and community development policy by focusing on how key policy drivers, the current political and social moment, and core stakeholders are likely to create and/or limit opportunities moving forward. The course will examine the ways that policy does and does not change, primarily by focusing on selected high-profile issues such as pandemic responses related to housing, gentrification, efforts to address racial inequality, and the ongoing challenges of homelessness. It will also use the dynamics related to political movements and the tensions between competing ideologies at the national and state level to better understand the dynamics at play. A key goal for the course is to further students’ policy development understanding and skills through examination of the key political factors that influence the development of housing and community development policy and the leverage points and forms of intervention that public and private sector actors use.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 4650  Advanced GIS: Interactive Web Mapping and Spatial Data Visualization  (1.5 Credits)  
Typically offered occasionally  
Students will learn the fundamentals of web development with HTML, CSS, and Javascript, and github. Using Free and Open Source Spatial Data tools, students will learn to bring their maps to life on the web as interactive experiences. Use tools like QGIS, CartoDB and PostGIS. Final project will be an interactive web map around an Urban topic of your choosing. This course will involve programming, some experience is preferred but not required. Contact the instructor for introductory coding resources to review before class. Personal Laptops are required.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: No  
URPL-GP 4666  Topics in Urban Studies  (1.5 Credits)  
In an increasingly diverse city and country, the responsibility of public servants stretches far beyond writing and passing legislation. True representation requires consistent and meaningful engagement with historically underrepresented communities. In this course, students will discuss how lawmakers and those in public service can ensure that all stakeholders are heard in the decision-making process, and determine best practices for reaching communities who have historically been left behind by government.
Grading: Grad Wagner Graded  
Repeatable for additional credit: Yes